Session 1 Objectives

I have indicated what you should focus on as you read each of the sections of the textbook. I call these “objectives.”


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Organization of the Body

Chapter 2 - Homeostasis

Chapter 3 - Chemistry of Life

Chapter 4 - Biomolecules



Chapter 1 - Organization of the Body

Science and Society

Anatomy and Physiology

You should be able to identify:

Language of Science and Medicine

This section mentions the fact that within each chapter of the textbook, you will find a section titled Language of Science and/or Language of Medicine. These sections provide the meaning of terms found in each chapter and the derivation of the term in Greek or Latin. Periodically, I’ll point out words or root words that come up periodically in anatomy. That way, if you encounter a new term but you know the meaning of the root words, you can probably figure out what the term means.

Characteristics of Life

You should be able to:

Levels of Organization

You should be able to:

Systems of the Human Body

Be able to indicate the names of the organs and the primary functions of each of the systems of the body. (Refer to Table 1–2 in the textbook).

Go to my notes on Systems of the body

Anatomical Position

You should be able to:

Anatomical Directions

Directional Terms

You should be able to:

Be able to identify the meaning of each of the bold-face terms below.

Lumen - the lumen is the space of a hollow organ. For instance, blood flows in the lumen of blood vessels.

Central and Peripheral

The word “central” means near the center. These two terms are used when referring to the two major parts of the nervous system: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Medullary and Cortical

The term “medullary” refers to the inner region of some organs. For instance, the kidneys and the adrenal glands have a medullary region (the renal medulla and adrenal medulla, respectively).

The term “cortical” means “bark” as in tree bark or “rind” as in watermelon rind. Both the kidneys and the adrenal glands have a cortical region. They are the renal cortex and adrenal cortex.

Basal and Apical

The term “basal” refers to the base or widest portion of an organ. For instance, the base of the heart is the wide portion at it most superior end and the apex is the pointed end at the inferior end.

Body Planes and Sections

You should be able to:

Body Cavities

You should be able to:

Body Regions

You should be able to:

There are two major portions of the human body: the axial and appendicular regions.

The axial portion includes the head, neck, torso or trunk.

The appendicular portion refers to the appendages. The appendicular portion includes the upper and lower limbs and their connection to the axial portion.

You’ll see these terms again when we learn about the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Interaction of Structure and Function

Just read this section.
This is the end of Chapter 1.



Chapter 2 - Homeostasis

Homeostasis

Be able to indicate:

Here are my comments about homeostasis that might help.

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

Be able to:

Levels of Homeostatic Control

Be able to differentiate between intracellular control, intrinsic control, and extrinsic control.

Summary of Homeostasis

This would be a good section to read in order to review what was learned in this chapter.



Chapter 3 - Chemistry of Life

Units of Matter

Matter is “stuff.” Anything that has mass and takes up space is matter.
In this section, we’ll learn about:

Elements and Compounds

Be able to indicate:

Atoms

Atoms are the basic building block of matter. In other words, an atom is the smallest part of an element that still retains the properties of that element.

Atomic Structure

In this section, you’ll learn about:

Cloud Model

Be able to indicate:

Here are my comments about the cloud model that might help.

Atomic Number and Mass Number

You should be able to define the meaning of atomic number and mass number.

Energy Levels

Be able to:

Isotopes

Be able to indicate what isotopes are.

Here are my notes about isotopes that might help

Attractions Between Atoms

In this sections, you’ll learn about chemical bonds. When a chemical bond is formed, atoms are attracted to each other (just like when you “bond” with someone).

Earlier, we learned that when atoms react with each other during a chemical reaction and formed a bond, it was the electrons in the outermost shell of the atoms that were somehow involved.

In this section, we’ll learn what the electrons in the outermost shell are doing when a chemical bond is formed.

Chemical Bonds

Chemical reactions between two atoms involve the electrons of their outermost shell. More specifically, as mentioned earlier, atoms will either gain, lose, or share the electrons in the outermost shell with those of another atom. Two atoms interact in one of these ways in order to gain a full outermost shell containing eight electrons (the octet rule). When two atoms interact with each other so as to get a full outmost shell, they “help” each other and form a chemical bond.

Let’s now look at the two kinds of bonds that are formed: ionic bonds and covalent bonds.

Ionic Bonds

You should be able to:

Here are my notes about ionic bonds

Covalent Bonds

You should be able to:

Here are my notes about covalent bonds

Attractions Between Molecules

In this section, you will learn about hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are bonds between molecules, not bonds within a molecule.

Hydrogen Bonds

You should be able to:

Here are my notes about hydrogen bonds

Chemical Reactions

You should be able to:

Metabolism

In this section, you will learn about:

Body Chemistry

Be able to:

Catabolism

You should be able to:

Anabolism

You should be able to:

Organic and Inorganic Compounds

By the end of this section, you should be able to:

Organic molecules contain carbon-carbon (C-C )and carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. Inorganic molecules do not contain either one of these types of bonds.

Both organic and inorganic molecules are important in human physiology.

Inorganic Molecules

In this section, we’ll learn about:

Water

You should be able to:

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Just read this section. There are no objectives.

Electrolytes

You should be able to:

Acids

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my notes about acids

Bases

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my notes about bases

The pH scale

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my notes about the pH scale

Buffers

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my notes about buffers.

Salts

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my notes about salts.



Chapter 4 - Biomolecules

Organic Molecules

In this section, you’ll learn about the following biological molecules:

Carbohydrates

Objectives - For this section, you should be able to:

Monosaccharides

For this section, you should be able to:

Here are my short notes about monosaccharides

Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

For this section, you should be able to:

Go to my notes about disaccharides and polysaccharides

Lipids

For this section, you should be able to:

Triglycerides or Fats

For this section, you should be able to:

Go to my notes on Triglycerides

Phospholipids

For this section, you should be able to:

Steroids

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

Prostaglandins

For this section, you should be able to:

Lipoproteins

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

Lipoproteins are covered in Box 4–1 Health Matters | Blood Lipoproteins in Ch.4.

Proteins

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

Amino Acids

or this section, you should be able to indicate:

Levels of Protein Structure

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

Go to my notes about Levels of Protein Structure

Importance of Protein Shape

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

In this section, we’ll be learning about the following:

DNA and RNA

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

See my notes about DNA and RNA

Nucleotides and Related Molecules

For this section, you should be able to indicate:

See my notes about nucleotides and related molecules

Combined Forms

This section is optional reading.

This is the end of the content for the Session 1 Quiz.